A wind turbine converts the kinetic energy of wind into versatile electric energy. The turbine uses the power of wind to turn a set of blades. These blades are connected to a rotor. The rotor powers an electric motor or generator. The motor generates a voltage difference which can then power other electrical elements.
There are two main types of turbines: horizontal-axis turbines are the stereotypical windmills, while newer transverse-axis turbines are omnidirectional.
Wind is sometimes inconsistent around the world, and its direction changes constantly. However, our turbine will be tested in a controlled environment where the wind is constant and does not change direction. This guideline simplifies design processes considerably, as the turbine head will not have to rotate.
Electric motors spin at a speed proportional to the applied voltage. Likewise, electric generators generate a voltage proportional to the speed of their rotation. However, the amount of torque applied to the motor does not directly influence the voltage potential.
To maximize the voltage generated by the motor, commercial wind turbines use complex gearing systems to convert excess torque into rotational speed.